Tuesday, 12 July 2016

Linguistic Features of Pent

The Language of Pent


The first and most important point to realise is that ‘Pentan’ as a language has only existed since the Seleran Empire produced a patois that permitted communication between the very disparate elements of the army.  Prior to that there were distinct languages spoken within major tribal groupings and in specific regions that were not mutually intelligible.  The languages of the Gamatae mixed with those of Nivorah, Dara Happa and Pelanda and numerous fragments of Peloria to produce a wild blend with local outcomes.

 Secondly, Pentan has no native written form, and therefore it is not sufficient to render it in the form of letters.  The sounds are exactly that, not a combination of letters, and the phonemes vary across the land, despite Sheng’s best efforts.  A result of this is that written forms may record the one phoneme in a number of different ways, and the language can seem far more varied than it actually is.  For example, Eusibus of Alkoth is a name rendered in Dara Happan.  The same initial sound might be rendered as Yu- in Pelanda and the Grazelands.

 Thirdly, no language is static when it has living speakers.  The settlement of Kralorelans, Teshnans, and Chern Durelites has continued to influence the ways in which the sounds are locally pronounced. 


Sins of Omission

A great deal of what makes a language stand out can be summed up in what it does not do!  Initial sounds make a great impression, and what may be said of Pentan is that it lacks several of those which occur in Dara Happan and other ‘Firespeech’ languages.

 While there are apparent exceptions (explained hereafter) there are no (or rare) words starting with the following:

E, M, N, P, Qu/Kw, S, W or X.

This indicates that Pent is not a Pentan word.

 The exceptions are Eusibus, mentioned in the second paragraph, Sirdaryo, which may be seen as a softened form of an original Zirdaryo, Seleris which appears more of a Pelorian title, and one use of W which can be understood as a remnant of an ancient Hw, as still present in the Pelorian Hwarin.

 Similarly, there are numerous word endings missing:  D, F, G, J, V, W, X, Y and Z.

 In the central belt there is a significant influence from Teshnos and Kralorela, and in north and east from Chern Durel.  These influences are more matters of pronunciation rather than meaning.
These simple facts, along with standard patterns of elision, mean that the following may be taken as the Pentan versions of Dara Happan names from the Fortunate succession.

1740 Plate with Triumphal Entry of Alexander in Babylon anagoria.JPG
An Emperor of Dara Happa returning in triumph to Raibanth


DH                                          W Pent                           C Pent                        N& E Pent

Yelm                              Alm                           Am                        'al

Murharzarm                   Burharzarm              Burharsharm         Burarsharng

Khorventos                    Khorventos               Korvaindosh         Korvengkoth

Ovosto                                  Ovosto                            Ai'osto                       Ovotho

Orogoros                              Orokoros                        Airogoros                  Orogoroth      

Oravinos                              Orafinos                          Aira'inosh                  Ora'inoth          

Anaxial                                 Anazial                            Anashial                     'angatheel    

Lukarius                               Lukarius                          Lukariush                   Mlookareeth     

Urvairinus                           Urvairinus                      Urvairinush                 Urvairinuth        

Kestinoros                          Kestinoros                      Kaishtinorosh              Ketinoroth

Manarlavus                        Banarlafus                      Banarlafush                 Banarlavuth

Vanyoramet                      Vanyoramet                   Vanyoramait                Vanyaranget

Manimat                            Banibat                           Banibat                          Banibat

Kazkurtum                        Kazkartum                       Kashkartum                  Kathkartoon

Jenarong                            Jenarong                        Jainarong                       Jenarong

Gerruskoger                      Gerruskoger                  Gairukshogair               Gerungkogger

Vuranostum                      Vuranostum                  Vuranostum                   Vuranothun

Huradabba                        Huradabba                     Huraddaba                     Uratanga

 Dardaggus                        Dardaggus                     Dardangush                    Dardaguth

Kerunebbe                        Kerunebbe                     Kerunaibao                     Kerunengee

Dagguneri                         Dagguneri                       Dangunairi                     Daguneri

Kestinendos                     Kestinentos                     Kekshinaintosh             Kethinengkoth

Illadarga                            Illadarga                          Ai'addarga                      Ilatharga

Viramakradda                  Viramakradda                Viramakshradda            Virangakada

Eusibus                              Yusibus                            Yusibush                         Yusi'uth

Harkaztem                        Harkaztem                      Harkashtaim                   'arkatheng

Khordavu                          Khordafu                         Kordafu                           Kordavu

Anirmesha                        Anirbesha                       Anirbaisha                       'irbetsa

Wanthanelm                    Anthanalm                     Andanam                         'antanal              

Anirdavu                           Anirdafu                          Anirdafu                          'angirdavu

Erraibdavu                        Arraibdafu                      Araibdafu                       'arai'davu

Mahzanelm                      Bahzanalm                     Bashanam                       Bathanal

Erzanelm                          Arsanalm                        Ashanam                         'erthanal

Khorzanelm                     Khorsanalm                   Korsanam                         Korsanal

Radaidavu                        Rataidafu                      Rataidafu                          Grataidavu

Anirestyu                         Anirastyu                      Anirash'yu                         'anirathyu

(Nysalor)                          Byzalor                          Buesha'or                          Bithalor

(Ordanestyu)                  Ordanastyu                  Oddanashyu                      Danathyu

Erzanestyu                      Arsanastyu                   Ashanash'yu                      'arsanathyu

Anirinelm                        Anirinalm                     Anirinam                             'anirinal

Raibmesha                     Raibbesha                      Raibaisha                           Grai'etha

Elmharsnik                     Almharsbik                    Amharshbiksh                    'alarik

Sothenik                         Zothanik                        Sotaniksh                            Zothanik

Helemshal                      Helamshal                    He'msha                              'elangshal            

Vorandevu                     Vorandefu                    Voranddaifu                       Vorangdaivu

Fenaldevu                      Fenaldefu                      Fainaddaifu                       Vengaldevu             

Asvekhordevu               Asvekhordefu               Ashvekshoddaifu              'asvengkordevu

Desikselm                      Desiksalm                     Daisiksham                         Daithingksal

Desikanir                       Desikanir                       Daishikshanir                      Daithingkanir
Verendekelm                Verantakalm                Vairandaksham                  Verantakal

Denesiod                       Debeziot                       Daibaishiat                           Denethot

Elmesiod                       Albeziot                         Abaishiat                              'albethot

Dismesiod                     Disbeziot                       Dishbaishiat                        Dithbethot

Elmexdros                     Almazdros                     Amashdrosh                       'alathoth

Dismexdros                  Disbezdros                    Dishmekshdrosh                Dithbethoth

Karmexdros                 Karmazdros                   Karmakshdrosh                   Karmathoth

Elmatryan                    Almatryan                      Amadd'an                            'alat'an

Dismatryan                  Disbatrayan                   Disbadd'an                          Disbatrayan

Ulikarelm                      Ulikaralm                       Uddiksharam                     Ulingkaral

Dismanthuyar             Disbanthar                     Disbandar                           Dithbantar

Karvanyar                     Karvanyar                     Karvanyar                            Karvanyar

Sarenesh                       Zaranash                       Saranash                             Zaranath

Heredesh                      Heratash                       Hairatash                             'eratath

Karsdevan                    Karsdefan                      Karshdeban                        Kardevan

Karsdevesus                Karzdefasus                  Karshdebasus                      Kardevathuth

Kewetdesh                   Ketdesh                        Kaiddesh                              Ketdeth

Kewetdevsus               Ketdevsus                    Kaiddebsus                           Ketde'ooth

Kumardesh                  Kubardesh                    Kumaddaish                         Ku'ardeth

Khorviramaka              Khorvirabaka               Korvirabaksha                     Korvira'ka
Kumarstyu                   Kumarstyu                    Kumar'u                               Kungathyu

Kumardros                   Kumartros                    Kumartrosh                         Kungatroth

Alenvus                         Alanfus                         A'anfush                               'alangooth

Khorkestinus               Khorkastibus                Korkashtibush                     Korkathoos

Kumardroni                 Kubertrobi                   Kuber'obi                              Kubertsobi

Kewetdroni                  Ketrobi                         Kai'obi                                   Ketsobi

Vinyartyu                      Vinyartu                       Vinyartyu                             Vingyartu

Spengatha                    Zbengatha                   Saingata                                Zbeggatha

Yelmgatha                   Yelmgatha                    Yaimgata                              Yelgatha

Vinyargatha                 Vinyargatha                Vinyargata                            Vinyargatha

Desderius                    Desderius                    Daisdairiush                          Dethderooth

Vinyardavu                  Vinyardafu                  Vinyardafu                            Vinyardavu

Elmexdavu                  Almazdafu                  Amashdafu                             'alathdavu

File:Orlat plaque.jpg
A Pentan mirror-back depicting warfare against Kastoki raiders

With much gratitude to Tindalos for access to some of his (as yet unpublished) magnum opus on the language of Dara Happa



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